Concepts and variables are mental images; concepts are highly subjective and cannot be measured unless they are operationalized while variables can be measured on one of the statistical scales. Concepts are highly subjective in nature and that makes it difficult to use them as they are in a research study. These subjective thoughts cannot be measured on a statistical scale. Kumar says that concepts are mental images and therefore their meanings vary markedly from individual to individual.
Definitions Dependent Variable The variable that depends on other factors that are measured. These variables are expected to change as a result of an experimental manipulation of the independent variable or variables.
It is the presumed effect. Independent Variable The variable that is stable and unaffected by the other variables you are trying to measure.
It refers to the condition of an experiment that is systematically manipulated by the investigator. It is the presumed cause. Cramer, Duncan and Dennis Howitt.
Institutional Review Board Guidebook: Identifying Dependent and Indepent Variables Don't feel bad if you are confused about what is the dependent variable and what is the independent variable in social and behavioral sciences research. However, it's important that you learn the difference because framing a study using these variables is a common approach to organizing the elements of a social sciences research study in order to discover relevant and meaningful results.
Specifically, it is important for these two reasons: You need to understand and be able to evaluate their application in other people's research. You need to apply them correctly in your own research.
A variable in research simply refers to a person, place, thing, or phenomenon that you are trying to measure in some way. The best way to understand the difference between a dependent and independent variable is that the meaning of each is implied by what the words tell us about the variable you are using.
You can do this with a simple exercise from the website, Graphic Tutorial. Take the sentence, "The [independent variable] causes a change in [dependent variable] and it is not possible that [dependent variable] could cause a change in [independent variable]. This will help you identify each type of variable.
If you're still not sure, consult with your professor before you begin to write. SAGE,pp. Techniques include associations, sampling, random selection, and blind selection.
Designation of the dependent and independent variable involves unpacking the research problem in a way that identifies a general cause and effect and classifying these variables as either independent or dependent.
The variables should be outlined in the introduction of your paper and explained in more detail in the methods section. There are no rules about the structure and style for writing about independent or dependent variables but, as with any academic writing, clarity and being succinct is most important.
After you have described the research problem and its significance in relation to prior research, explain why you have chosen to examine the problem using a method of analysis that investigates the relationships between or among independent and dependent variables.
State what it is about the research problem that lends itself to this type of analysis. For example, if you are investigating the relationship between corporate environmental sustainability efforts [the independent variable] and dependent variables associated with measuring employee satisfaction at work using a survey instrument, you would first identify each variable and then provide background information about the variables.
What is meant by "environmental sustainability"?
Are you looking at a particular company [e. Why is employee satisfaction in the workplace important? How does a company make their employees aware of sustainability efforts and why would a company even care that its employees know about these efforts?The independent variable is the core of the experiment and is isolated and manipulated by the researcher.
The dependent variable is the measurable outcome of this manipulation, the results of the experimental design. For many physical experiments, isolating the independent variable and measuring the dependent is generally easy. INRODUCTION “Variable” is a term frequently used in research projects.
It is pertinent to define and identify the variables while designing quantitative research.
Unlike extraneous variables, moderator variables are measured and taken into consideration. Typical moderator variables in TESL and language acquisition research (when they are not the major focus of the study) include the sex, age, culture, or language proficiency of the subjects.
A variable may be situation specific; for example gender is a variable but if in a particular situation like a class of Research Methods if there are only female students, then in this situation gender will not be considered as a variable.
Types of Variable 1. The process of examining a research problem in the social and behavioral sciences is often framed around methods of analysis that compare, contrast, correlate, average, or integrate relationships between or among variables.
Techniques include associations, sampling, random selection, and blind selection. Measurability is the main difference between concepts and variables. A variable can be measured either using crude or refined method or either using subjective or objective methods.
There are various scales and a variable can be measured on either one of those scales.