Michael Porter created the concept in the s. Also Porter defined the Margin as the difference between the value created and costs: Here is Osterwalder and Pigneur's Business Model canvas.
Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 64 respondents comprising 30 farmers, 24 retailers and 10 wholesalers. The data were collected in in Pwalugu, a major tomato growing area in the Upper East Region of Ghana.
The major problems confronting the tomato value chain were found to be low prices, price volatility, lack of access to credit, poor quality of tomatoes, inadequate storage and warehousing facilities, inadequate transportation facilities, dispersed nature of source of supply, high interest rate and lack of adequate information.
While farmers ranked low price as their most worrying constraint, poor quality of Ghana produced tomatoes was ranked as the most pressing constraint of wholesalers and retailers.
For the NSTC, the most pressing constraint was inadequate capital for the purchase of equipment and raw materials. The paper recommends that interventions in the value chain should be coordinated in a manner as to affect all actors, taking into consideration their specific priority needs.
This is due to the fact that most Ghanaian staple foods require in one form or the other the use of tomato. Added to this is the fact that Ghana is unable to produce enough tomatoes to meet domestic demand.
However, like many other vegetable crops, tomato production remains a smallholder activity with very few commercial farms FAO, This smallholder nature of tomato production has made Ghana a net importer of tomatoes with fresh tomatoes imported from Burkina Faso over half of the year Horna et al.
Bortey has attributed this situation to production and marketing constraints in the tomato industry, a position this paper agrees with. The yield gap is quite huge. While the annual realisable yield for tomatoes in Ghana is 15 metric tonnes per hectare, the actual yield now is 7.
In Africa, the production and supply of many agricultural commodities is largely seasonal. This seasonality is more evident in perishable crops such as fruits and vegetables which allow for a small time lag between harvest and usage Amikuzuno et al. What is also clear is that traders adjust their prices based on the nature of supply Parrott et al.
As supply decreases prices are adjusted upwards and vice versa. This cyclical nature of tomato production and supply is reflected in the consistent variations in the average rural wholesale price of tomatoes from to see figure 1 below.
Despite the fluctuations, the trend generally has been upward. ISSER reports that the average rural wholesale price for tomatoes rose by The literature on the constraints of the tomato industry has focused largely on the activities of market queens and middlemen eg.
Some other authors eg. Adu-Dapaah and Oppong-Konadu, have chosen to focus on production constraints only. Such one sided approach makes it difficult for us to have the full picture.
A more holistic view of issues is now being advocated in the development literature.Master’s Thesis Impact of Enterprise Resource Planning in Supply Chain Management By Seyed Ali Nemati Dinesh Mangaladurai This Thesis is a mandatory part for the Master’s Program in Industrial Engineering with Specialization in Logistics Management & provides 15 Credits, 2/ widely held belief of the value of effective supply chain management.
v Sample 9. William Cunningham, for his guidance and support throughout the course of this thesis effort. I would also like to thank my committee members, Lt Col Sharon Heilmann & Maj Daniel Mattioda. The success of this research effort was made possible by the work. The understanding and practicing of supply chain management (SCM) has become an essential prerequisite for staying competitive in the global race and for enhancing profitably [3–6].
This thesis is based on my personal interest in the entrepreneurial dynamics together with my 10 Global value chain , Integrated Management Ltd 11 Future global value chain, Integrated management Ltd 12 Global value chain , Homeveg Tanzania Ltd.
implementation of supply chain management principles to improve the supply chain are of key importance to any global company today. In the thesis theoretical framework is . Currently, the development and adoption of an integrated value chain risk management strategy is limited by at least four factors.
Firstly, the risks at a global level are not identified in order to mitigate them and implement the necessary preventive actions.