Downey 1 1Swinburne University of Technology, Australia High anxiety and depression are often observed in the Australian adolescent population, and if left untreated, can have long-term negative consequences impacting educational attainment and a range of important life outcomes. The utilization of mindfulness techniques has been associated with decreased anxiety and depression, but the underlying mechanisms for this is only beginning to be understood. Previous research with adult samples has suggested that the development of emotional intelligence EI may be one mechanism by which mindfulness confers its benefits on wellbeing. This study is the first to examine the relation between mindfulness, EI, anxiety and depression in an adolescent population.
Five or more of the following symptoms have been present during the same two-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is 1 depressed mood or 2 loss of interest or pleasure.
Children with immature cognitive-linguistic development may not be able to describe inner mood states and therefore may present with vague physical complaints, sad facialexpression, or poor eye contact.
Adult-like mood disturbance may occur in older adolescents. Delusional guilt usually is not present.
Symptoms do not meet the criteria for mixed bipolar disorder. Same as adults C. Symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Clinically significant impairment of social or school functioning is present.
Adolescents also may have occupational dysfunction.
Symptoms are not caused by the direct physiologic effects of a substance e. Similar to adults E. Symptoms are not caused by bereavement—i.
Psychotic symptoms in severe major depression, if present, are more often auditory hallucinations usually criticizing the patient than delusions.
Adapted with permission from American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: American Psychiatric Association, If substance abuse is present, an independent diagnosis of major depression requires the presence of depression before substance abuse or during periods of remission.
Concurrent treatment of substance use disorder and depression is needed to improve outcomes for both. Symptoms start within three months of an identifiable stressor e.
Symptoms should not meet criteria for another psychiatric disorder, are not caused by bereavement, and do not last longer than six months after the stressor has stopped.
Dysthymic disorder is a chronic, milder form of depression characterized by a depressed or irritable mood indicated subjectively or described by others present for more days than not for at least one year as opposed to two years for adults.
Two of the following additional symptoms also are required: If present between the episodes of major depression, minor depression can be a risk factor for relapse. Although less common, bipolar disorder is an important differential diagnosis.
In 40 percent of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, the illness begins with a major depressive episode.
In severe major depression with psychosis, auditory hallucinations often criticizing the patient rather than delusions as occur in adults are present. This age-related variability in psychotic symptoms may be a result of differences in cognitive maturation.
Treatment of major depressive disorder with psychosis requires the combination of an antidepressant and an antipsychotic medication.3 The Lifetime Bully: Investigating the Relationship Between Adolescent Bullying and Depression in Early Adulthood The age of believing that bullying is just a part of growing up and calls for no.
and depression are not distinguished until late childhood or early adolescence, it can be difficult to differentiate between clinical and non-clinical cases of anxiety and depression in this population (Lundervold, Breivik, Posserud, Stormark, & Hysing ). This study is the first to examine the relation between mindfulness, EI, anxiety and depression in an adolescent population.
It was hypothesised that EI would mediate the relationships between mindfulness and anxiety, as well as mindfulness and depression.
Association Between Media Use in Adolescence and Depression in Young Adulthood. A Longitudinal Study. to investigate the relationship between electronic media exposure in adolescents who were not depressed at baseline and subsequent development of depression after 7 years of follow-up.
The development of depression in adolescence. A noncausal relationship suggests that a predisposition of common factors, such as psychological vulnerabilities, contributes to the observed correlation between smoking and depression for adults (Breslau, ) and adolescents (Koval, Pederson, Mills, McGrady, & Carvajal, ).
During adolescence, depression becomes an increasing problem. From puberty through adulthood, the incidence continues to rise until it reaches adult levels around age 15 (Hagman and Bechtold, , pp. ). Hagman and Bechtold also report that adolescents have an overall depression incidence of about 8%, which is considerably higher than the % rate found in children.